I have been sourcing Porcelain for last 20 years from various OEM factories in entire South East Asia, like Sri Lanka, Bangla Desh, Thailand, Vientnam, Indonesia including China. During the course of my sourcing trips to various factories, I learnt a lot about the manufacturing process, various methods adopted by different factories, rather different countries… More or less entire manufacturing process (different stages in manufacturing) is somewhat same/ similar everywhere, I found one remarkably different thing in China……. There are two distinct high temperature firing in Porcelain manufacturing. One is Biscuit (Bisq) firing typically done at 1350-1400 degrees C and another is Glaze (Glost) firing at about 1200-1250 degrees C. That’s why porcelain becomes quite strong, vitrified & more durable as compared to any other Ceramic , bonechina bodies. This two time firing is done in all countries, in all porcelain manufacturing countries except China.. Chinese have learnt & perfected the art of manufacturing at Low cost ! They fire porcelain only once … Bisq & Glost firing together at once !!
This saves huge firing (fuel) cost, which is usually 25-30% of total manufacturing cost… And this is one major reason why Chinese Porcelain is much lower in cost as compared to porcelain made in other countries.. The labour cost , another big component of total manufacturing cost , used to be much lower in China few years ago… Now it is almost same/ may be more in China as compared to other South East Asian countries.
Of course , the products fired two times are much more stronger, durable as compared to products fired only once..